Chau Nguyen

THESIS: Starting in 1450, which marks the beginning of a new period because of exploration, until 1750, France and England gained new inventions and new political systems, such as European monarchies. They also began to expand on their global domination by thinking up different ways to reach China in order to get their hands the famous silks and porcelain. in comparison, land-based empires, such as the Mughals and China, also became unified under a foreign ruler. In contrast however, the land-based empires, especially China, only explored its surrounding areas. The Mughals traded with the British later on.

  • European monarchy in France:
    • In comparison with Britain, France was more absolutist.
    • France was unified after Hundred Year's War (1337- 1453), which was a war between the French and the British.
    • Divine Right Theory gave the monarchs power to rule as gods on Earth.
    • Power of the nobility weakened as a result of Cardinal Richelieu's acts of burning castles and crushing coups against the king.
      • A new branch of government called the bureaucracy was formed by Richelieu. They were responsible for collecting taxes and keeping people in check.
      • The bourgeoisie class emerged.

The French bourgeoisie was the middle, capitalist class who owned most of society's wealth and means of production.
The French bourgeoisie was the middle, capitalist class who owned most of society's wealth and means of production.


  • European monarchy in Britain:
    • The Church of England was very powerful during this time and had authority over the monarchs.
    • King Henry VIII in 1534 was able to take control of the church and placed himself as the head through the Act of Supremacy.
    • The 1628 Petition of Right, signed by King Charles I, allowed for justice and fairness through the limiting of taxation and the prohibition of unlawful imprisonment. The 1679 Habeas Corpus Act protected people from arrests without due process.
    • Britain went from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy.
      • This transition occurred over several centuries. It started in 1066, when William I set up the first Parliament. In 1215, King John was forced by the nobles to sign the Magna Carta which protected certain rights of all subjects.
      • In 1649, King Charles I was executed for raising taxes. Charles II was asked by Parliament to become King. In 1685, Charles II died. James II, became King and proved to be a tyrant.
      • In 1689, Parliament removed him from power and asked Mary II and William of Orange to become King and Queen. This was called the Glorious Revolution. At this point, Britain became a constitutional monarchy. William and Mary became figureheads with limited power, as Parliament was able to assert more authority over the British.


William of Orange and Mary II become monarchs of limited power through the nonviolent Glorious Revolution of 1688.
William of Orange and Mary II become monarchs of limited power through the nonviolent Glorious Revolution of 1688.

  • Land-based empire of the Mughals (established by Babur in 1526):
    • Nearly all of India was united under Babur.
    • Akbar (reigned 1556 to 1605) was able to unify most of India since he allowed Hinduism and Islam to coexist with one another, even through the tensions, and eliminated the jizyah, an Islamic head or poll tax that early Islamic rulers demanded from their non-Muslim subjects.
    • Shah Jahan, Akbar's grandson, built the Taj Mahal for his wife.
    • In the 1600s, religious toleration ended as the Europeans arrived in India.
    • Trade was established as the British established the British East India Company.
      • Trade in spices was its original focus. Other commodities include cotton, silk, and other goods.
  • Land-based empire of China
    • China had a strong centralized and Confucian government during the Ming dynasty, the dynasty ruling China 1368–1644 founded by Zhu Yuanzhang.
    • The civil service examination was restored, and intelligent Chinese elites were wanted. Chinese culture was energized and strengthened, allowing the Chinese to remove any Mongol influences from the former Yuan dynasty.
    • Silk Road trade declined as a result of Mongol invasions and pirates.
    • The government became unstable as the emperor lived in luxury and lacked in his governing responsibilities.
    • As a result, the Qing Dynasty, run by the Manchus, replaced the Ming Dynasty until 1911.

The Silk Road is an overland caravan route that linked Xian in central China with the eastern Mediterranean. It was established during the period of Roman rule in Europe and took its name from the silk that was brought to the west from China.
The Silk Road is an overland caravan route that linked Xian in central China with the eastern Mediterranean. It was established during the period of Roman rule in Europe and took its name from the silk that was brought to the west from China.